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?Custom made facts walkthrough
Personalized facts
Lengthen Facter by crafting your very own customized facts to supply important information to Puppet.
Adding personalized facts to Facter
Every now and then you'll need to be able to jot down conditional expressions based upon site-specific information that just isn’t in existence by way of Facter, or perhaps you’d like to include it within a template.
Since you can’t include arbitrary Ruby code within your manifests, the easiest alternative is to insert a new fact to Facter. These even more facts can then be distributed to Puppet clients and are around for use in manifests and templates, just like any other fact would be.
Note: Facter 3.0 removed the Ruby implementations of some qualities and replaced them which includes a customized facts API. Any customized fact that requires one particular within the Ruby documents previously stored in lib/facter/util will fail by having an error. For even more detail, see the Facter 3.0 release notes .
The concept
You could insert new facts by producing snippets of Ruby code to the Puppet master. Puppet then utilizes Plugins in Modules to distribute the facts to the client.
Loading personalized facts
Facter supplies a couple methods of loading facts:
$LOAD\_PATH. or the Ruby library load path
The --custom-dir command line option.
The environment variable ‘FACTERLIB’
It is easy to use these methods of loading facts to do things like check data files locally before distributing them, or else you can arrange to have a exact list of facts available in the market on certain machines.
Implementing the Ruby load path
Facter searches all directories from the Ruby $LOAD_PATH variable for subdirectories named ‘facter’, and loads all Ruby data files in those directories. As soon as you had some directory into your $LOAD_PATH like
/lib/ruby. build like this:
Facter would try to load ‘facter/system_load.rb’, ‘facter/users.rb’, and ‘facter/rackspace.rb’.
Employing the --custom-dir command line option
Facter can take an array of --custom-dir possible choices for the command line that specifies just one directory to search for tailor made facts. Facter attempts to load all Ruby data files within the specified directories. This lets you to definitely do something like this:
Making use of the FACTERLIB environment variable
Facter also checks the environment variable FACTERLIB for a delimited (semicolon for Windows and colon for all other platforms) list of directories, and tries to load all Ruby data files in those directories. This permits you to definitely do something like this:
Note: Changes in built-in pluginsync help in Facter 3
Facter two.four deprecated Facter’s aid for loading facts by means of Puppet’s pluginsync (the -p option), and Facter 3.0.0 removed the -p option. However, we reversed this decision in Facter 3.0.two and re-enabled the -p option. For details about up-to-date and long term aid for this option, see the Facter 3.0.two release notes .
Two parts of every fact
Setting aside external facts for now, most facts have at least two things:
A call to Facter.increase('fact_name'). which determines the name belonging to the fact
A setcode statement for painless resolutions, which is evaluated to determine the fact’s value.
Facts can get a lot alot more complicated than that, but those two together are probably the most prevalent implementation of the tailor made fact.
Executing shell commands in facts
Puppet gets tips about a solution from Facter, along with the most typical way for Facter to get that details is by executing shell commands. You can actually then parse and manipulate the output from those commands choosing standard Ruby code. The Facter API gives you a handful of ways to execute shell commands:
If all you ought to do is run the command and utilize the output, verbatim, as your fact’s value, you’re able to pass the command into setcode directly. For example: setcode 'uname --hardware-platform'
If your fact is further complicated than that, you could call Facter::Core::Execution.exec('uname --hardware-platform') from in the setcode do … close block. As always, whatever the setcode statement returns is utilised because the fact’s value.
In any case, remember that your shell command can be a Ruby string, so you’ll will be needing to escape special characters if you ever like to pass them through.
It is important to note that not everything that will work from the terminal will succeed inside of a fact . It is easy to utilize the pipe ( | ) and similar operators as you normally would, but Bash-specific syntax like if statements will not give good results. The highest quality way to handle this limitation is to put in writing your conditional logic in Ruby.
Example
Let’s say you wish to get the output of uname --hardware-platform to one out a certain type of workstation. To do this, you would make a new personalized fact. Start out by giving the fact a name, within this case, hardware_platform. and establish your new fact in a very file, hardware_platform.rb. to the Puppet master server:
You'll then utilize the instructions around the Plugins in Modules website page to copy the new fact to the module and distribute it. During your next Puppet run, the value belonging to the new fact will be on hand to utilise in your own manifests and templates.
Utilizing other facts
You can easlily publish a fact that makes use of other facts by accessing Facter.value(:somefact). If the fact fails to resolve or shouldn't be current, Facter returns nil .
Configuring facts
Facts have a small number of properties you can use to customize how facts are evaluated.
Confining facts
A single from the alot more commonly second hand properties is the confine statement, which restricts the fact to only run on programs that matches another given fact.
An example for the confine statement would be something like the following:
This fact employs sysfs on linux to get a list on the power states that are accessible about the given product. Since this is only around on Linux devices, we make use of the confine statement to ensure that this fact isn’t needlessly run on solutions that really don't aid this type of enumeration.
Fact precedence
An individual fact can have many different resolutions . just about every of which is truly a different way of ascertaining what the value for the fact should be. It is very usual to have different resolutions for different operating programs, for example. It is straightforward to confuse facts and resolutions given that they are superficially identical - to incorporate a new resolution to the fact, you simply increase the fact again, only by using a different setcode statement.
When a fact has greater than a single resolution, the first of all resolution that returns a value other than nil will established the fact’s value. The way that Facter decides the issue of resolution precedence is the weight property. Once Facter rules out any resolutions that are excluded for the reason that of confine statements, the resolution with the highest weight is evaluated for starters. If that resolution returns nil. Facter moves on to the next resolution (by descending weight) until it gets a value with the fact.
By default, the weight of the fact is the range of confines for that resolution, so that even more distinct resolutions takes priority over less unique resolutions.
Execution timeouts
Facter two.x supported a :timeout option to Facter#add. Facter no longer supports this option, and produces a warning if it is put to use.
Although this version of Facter does not assist overall timeouts on resolutions, you'll be able to pass a timeout to Facter::Core::Execution#execute :
Structured facts
Though the norm is for a fact to return an individual string, Facter two.0 introduced structured facts . which take the kind of either a hash or an array. All you absolutely need to do to make a structured fact is return a hash or an array from the setcode statement. You could see some relevant examples inside the crafting structured facts section within the Fact Overview .
Aggregate resolutions
If your fact brings together the output of different commands, it may make feeling to apply aggregate resolutions . An aggregate resolution is split into “chunks”, each individual an individual responsible for resolving one particular piece on the fact. After all in the chunks have been resolved separately, they’re combined into just one flat or structured fact and returned.
Aggregate resolutions have several key differences compared to very easy resolutions, beginning with the fact declaration. To introduce an aggregate resolution, you’ll really want to incorporate the :type => :aggregate parameter:
Each individual step within the resolution then gets its possess named chunk statement:
Inside a basic resolution, the code always incorporates a setcode statement that determines the fact’s value. Aggregate resolutions never have a setcode statement. Instead, they have an optional aggregate block that brings together the chunks. Whatever value the aggregate block returns will be the fact’s value. Here’s an example that just brings together the strings from the two chunks higher than:
If the chunk blocks either all return arrays or all return hashes, you might omit the aggregate block. For those who do, Facter instantly merges all of your details into 1 array or hash and use that because the fact’s value.
For greater examples of aggregate resolutions, see the aggregate resolutions section in the Fact Overview web site.
Viewing fact values
If your Puppet master(s) are configured to apply PuppetDB. you can still look at and search all of your facts for any node, which include personalized facts. See the PuppetDB docs for additional info.
External facts
What are external facts?
External facts provide you with a way make use of arbitrary executables or scripts as facts, or established facts statically with structured information. If you’ve ever wanted to write down a customized fact in Perl, C, or a one-line textual content file, this is how.
Fact locations
The most desirable way to distribute external facts is with pluginsync, which included assist for them in Puppet 3.four /Facter two.0.1. To increase external facts to your Puppet modules, just put them in <MODULEPATH>/<MODULE>/facts.d/ .
If you’re not employing pluginsync, then external facts must go within a standard directory. The location of this directory varies subject to your operating platform, whether your deployment works by using Puppet Business or open source releases, and whether you may be operating as root/Administrator. When calling facter from the command line, you’re able to specify the external facts directory with the --external-dir option.
Note: These directories never necessarily exist by default; you may would need to develop them. If you should set up the directory, make sure to restrict accessibility so that only Administrators can produce to the directory.
Inside a module (recommended):
On Unix/Linux/OS X, there are three directories:
On Windows 2003:
When working as a non-root / non-Administrator consumer:
Executable facts - Unix
Executable facts on Unix function by dropping an executable file into the standard external fact path previously mentioned. A shebang is always required for executable facts on Unix. If the shebang is missing, the execution for the fact will fail.
An example external fact written in Python:
You must ensure that the script has its execute bit established:
For Facter to parse the output, the script must return key/value pairs on STDOUT with the format:
Implementing this format, one script can return various facts.
Executable facts - Windows
Executable facts on Windows show results by dropping an executable file into the external fact path for your personal version of Windows. Unlike with Unix, the external facts interface expects Windows scripts to finish along with a known extension. Line endings is often either LF or CRLF. In the moment the following extensions are supported:
.com and .exe. binary executables
.bat and .cmd. batch scripts
.ps1. PowerShell scripts
As with Unix facts, every single script must return key/value pairs on STDOUT around the format:
Working with this format, an individual script can return different facts in a single return.
Batch scripts
The file encoding for .bat/.cmd information must be ANSI or UTF8 without BOM (Byte Order Mark), otherwise you may get strange output.
Below is definitely a sample batch script which outputs facts by making use of the required format:
PowerShell scripts
The encoding that should be put to use with .ps1 data files is pretty open. PowerShell determines the encoding on the file at run time.
In this article really is a sample PowerShell script which outputs facts making use of the required format:
You should be able to save and execute this PowerShell script within the command line.
Structured knowledge facts
Facter can parse structured information information stored from the external facts directory and established facts based upon their contents.
Structured info documents must use 1 belonging to the supported facts sorts and must have the correct file extension. For the moment, Facter supports the following extensions and knowledge variations:
yaml. YAML details, inside the following format:
json. JSON knowledge, from the following format:
txt. Key value pairs, inside following format:
As with executable facts, structured knowledge documents can established several facts at once.
Structured information facts on Windows
All belonging to the previously mentioned varieties are supported on Windows with the following caveats:
The line endings might possibly be either LF or CRLF .
The file encoding must be either ANSI or UTF8 without BOM (Byte Order Mark).
Troubleshooting
If your external fact will not be appearing in Facter’s output, operating Facter in debug mode should give you a meaningful reason and tell you which file is causing the problem:
A particular example of when this could happen is in cases where a fact returns invalid characters. Let say you second hand a hyphen instead of an equals sign within your script take a look at.sh :
Working puppet facts --debug should yield a useful message:
External facts and stdlib
Once you find out that an external fact does not match what you have configured inside your facts.d directory, make sure you haven't defined the same fact making use of the external facts abilities found inside the stdlib module.
Negatives
Although external facts offer you a mostly-equal way to make variables for Puppet, they have two or three downsides:
An external fact cannot internally reference another fact. However, due to parse order, you are able to reference an external fact from the Ruby fact.
External executable facts are forked instead of executed in the same practice.
Distributing executable facts through pluginsync requires Puppet 3.four.0 or greater.
Facter 3.four
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